Growth hormone (GH) description
Growth hormone (GH; somatotropin; hGH, GH1) is one of the most important hormones in the body. HGH is a 191-amino acid single chain polypeptide synthesized and secreted by somatotropic cells (somatotrophs) in the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland. In addition to the main pituitary growth hormone, there is also GH2 (placental growth hormone). In humans, both the growth hormones GH1 and GH2 are encoded by the GH1 and GH2 genes.
How does HGH work
Growth hormone secretion in the pituitary gland is primarily stimulated and regulated by the hormones Ghrelin, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH} – somatocrinin, and growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH) – somatostatin.
The main target organ of growth hormone is the liver and basically the most important function of HGH is stimulation through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway of IGF-1 production (insulin growth factor 1) in the liver. Endogenous protein hormone IGF-1, produced in the liver as an endocrine hormone and also directly in target tissues paracrine / autocrine hormone, is responsible for the overall anabolic processes in the body, cell growth, proliferation and regeneration, promotes growth effects on almost all cells in the body, especially skeletal muscle, cartilage, bone, liver, kidney, nerves, skin, hematopoietic and lung cells. IGF-I may also regulate cellular DNA synthesis; and in the brain, IGF-1 functions as a neurotrophic factor that, like BDNF, plays an important role in the cognition, neurogenesis, and survival of neurons.
Effects and benefits of Growth hormone
Most of the effects generally attributed to HGH are in fact due to IGF-1, whose production in the liver is stimulated by HGH:
- Growth hormone stimulates the growth of all internal organs except the brain
- Growth hormone increases protein synthesis
- Growth hormone supports the growth (hyperplasia) and regeneration of muscle tissue
- Growth hormone promotes lipolysis, increases fat utilization by stimulating the degradation and oxidation of triglycerides in adipocytes
- Growth hormone promotes whole body regeneration, wound healing and tissue regeneration
- Growth hormone increases calcium retention and bone mineralization
- Growth hormone plays an important role in homeostasis
- Growth hormone supports the immune system
- Growth hormone promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver
- Growth hormone increases the deodination of T4 to T3
- Growth hormone promotes emotional well-being and maintains high energy levels
- Growth hormone improves brain function (including learning and memory)
- Growth hormone can reduce the risk of heart and cardiovascular disease
Growth hormone possible side effects
- Joint and muscle pain
- Fluid retention
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
- Increased possible risk of diabetes
- The use of rHGH can suppress the inherent production of endogenous hGH in the pituitary gland
HGH / Growth hormone dosage
Optimal dose of Growth hormone (HGH) is often reported following:
- The first month of taking 2 IU for injection every other day
- 2nd – 4th month of use 3 IU for injection for 5 days a week (weekends free)
- 5th – 6th month of using 4 IU for injection for 5 days a week (weekends free)
The optimal duration of growth hormone use is approximately 2-3 months for people under 35 years and 4-6 months for people over 35 years of age. Studies show that growth hormone injections are preferably given on an empty stomach. To avoid bloating and joint pain during HGH therapy, it is recommended to start with a low dose and gradually increase the dose.